Pollution and Cooling effect

Clouds profoundly influence weather and climate. The brightness2 and lifetime of clouds is determined by cloud droplet number concentration, in turn dictated by the number of available seed particles. The formation of cloud droplets on non-volatile atmospheric particles is well understood. However, fine particulate matter in the atmosphere ranges widely in volatility. Co-condensation of semi-volatile compounds with water increases a particle’s propensity for cloud droplet formation, with … Continue reading Pollution and Cooling effect

The water footprint of humanity

Water footprints are estimated per nation from both a production and consumptionperspective. International virtual water flows are estimated based on trade in agricultural and industrial commodities. The global annual average WF in the period 1996–2005 was 9,087 Gm3/y (74% green, 11% blue, 15% gray). Agricultural production contributes 92%. About one-fifth of the global WF relates to production for export. The total volume of international virtual water flows … Continue reading The water footprint of humanity